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Health Care
Case Study


Health Care

Client Backgorund

One of the platforms for real-time patient engagements, a platform where patients may access transforming complex scheduling processes into easy, people-friendly experiences. They Integrate current system to provide a real time scheduling environment for the patients and the center staff.

Business Challenges

  • Protecting the application from being abused to distribute malware.

  • Design unique scripts for each device to guarantee that all test scenarios are covered.

  • Find a good balance between security best practices and equipment operational issues.


  • Operates in Multiple Locations.

  • Trusted by some of the biggest firms of IT and healthcare.

  • Globally Recognized Industry with several multi-specialty clinics.

  • Pan-India Operations must be taken into consideration.


The healthcare provider sought Kratikal's help in identifying technical and logical vulnerabilities that could jeopardize the operation of its network-connected IOT medical equipment. They also demanded concrete remedies to reduce the risks of exploiting those flaws.


  • The tests were conducted in accordance with the best practices available in the industry, using the experience of Kratikal in Medical Device Security Testing and IOT device testing practices

  • Various hacks were attempted to test the medical devices, the consoles, and the network connection.

  • The test was conducted as a Grey Box exercise

  • The tests were carried out in live environment, during times of no traffic on the machine.

Major Findings

  • The application is vulnerable to SQL Injection, which is extremely risky when sensitive data is involved

  • Stored Cross Site Scripting (XSS)occurs when data collected from users is not adequately screened, allowing malicious code to run on the website

  • Blind XSS is when an attacker "blindly" deploys a series of malicious payloads on a website in the hopes of saving them in a permanent state and gaining access to them.

  • An iframe Injection attack took place, in which iframe tags were placed into a page or other measures were taken to compromise the site visitors’ computers

  • HTML injection occurs when a user has control over an input point and can inject arbitrary HTML code into a vulnerable web page.

  • DIC can rapidly view or cancel RMI users' appointments by changing the Appointment ID in the request leading to a significant privacy risk to the platform's users.

  • The application's logs may reveal sensitive information, which could lead to other attacks.

  • The application is vulnerable to a Session Fixation attack, which allows an attacker to hijack a valid user session, compromising the program's confidentiality and integrity.

  • CSS Injection is Possible in Application where Injecting code into the CSS context allows the attacker to run JavaScript and harvest sensitive data via CSS selectors.

  • The application could be vulnerable to brute force attacks if it doesn't have a strong lockout mechanism, and a malicious user could gain access to sensitive data.

  • An outdated version of Open SSL leading to vulnerable attack like Denial of Service, Information Disclosure.


  • A SQL Injection attack can access, change, and execute sensitive database data.

  • Data being sent from the device to the mobile interface could be snooped by the attacker.

  • An attacker might also infect the machine with ransomware, viruses, or trojans, causing widespread network damage.

  • The attacker could hijack the web and mobile interface of the devices.

  • Using the vulnerabilities, an attacker could steal confidential patient records from the systems.


  • Attacker could exploit these vulnerabilities that could lead to life threatening condition for patients.

  • Weak BLE and Wi Protocols posed a significant threat to data confidentiality and availability.

  • Hijacking of the admin accounts of their application could lead to complete loss of service.

  • The corporation could face a lot of financial losses, suffer lawsuits, and have its brand image ruined.

  • The attacker might utilize the application's capability to redirect users to malicious websites and install malware such as ransomware on their computers and networks

  • Attacks against vital instruments, especially those dealing with nuclear medicine and radiology, could result in equipment failure in the best-case scenario and unrestrained radiation leakage in the hospital in the worst-case scenario.

  • If a successful cyber-attack occurs, you may be locked out of your company's critical databases, with attackers demanding a large ransom to regain access.


  • It is advised to constrain and sanitize input data by validating type, length, format, and range.

  • “All input fields” must sanitize the input given to them before sending it to the server

  • To avoid loading any external website in the iframe, sanitize the user input before submission and add suitable HTTP Response Headers according to the application's requirements.

  • It is advised to employ a per-user or per-person session to prevent attackers from directly targeting approved resources.

  • It is recommended not to create logs of sensitive information like username, password, etc. of the users.

  • It is advised that no sensitive information be made public, and those directory listings are restricted in the webserver setup.

  • Before embedding user input in CSS blocks, make sure it's properly escaped, and use a whitelist to prevent arbitrary style files from loading.

  • After 3 to 5 failed tries, the account should be locked out. Also, after being locked out, there should be a mechanism to reset the password, which might be self-unlocking after a period or requiring the intervention of the administrator

  • Vulnerabilities in the application are documented in detail was provided, along with an explanation of the problem, its origin, and how to fix it.

  • It is recommended to not keep the files like setup.php publicly accessible.

  • We recommend removing EXIF data from any new uploads as well as from existing uploads.

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Kratikal is dedicated to safeguarding your company from advanced threats, such as data leakage. For this reason, we do not reveal the names of our case study participants.